Unemployment Causes, Effects & Solutions : Essay Writing in English Language

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Full paragraph on the topic ‘Unemployment Causes, Effects & Solutions’ creative writing  in English Language for exams preparation.

India, with a vast population of over 1,000 million individuals, is facing the gravest problem of the century in the form of unemployment of worthy and productive citizens. This includes unemployment and under employment of the young and the old. This results in low productivity and nil or very low incomes. This also leads to the further degradation of household standards. The poverty is perpetuated. Again, the violent measures taken up by the youth agitations and individual frustration, which reaches a new pinnacle every day are its results. According to the latest estimates, there are 40 million people on the streets and seek employment in one form or the other. There is an addition of 7 million people to this figure every year.

An unemployment person feels himself to be burden on his family and society :

  1. He eschews all the morals and becomes a rebel.
  2. Some young persons take to drugs and illegal means of making money.
  3. He is entangled in an endless cycle one menace leads to another and the unemployment person gets caught in a quagmire of crises.

Features of Unemployment in India

In our country unemployment has two aspects:

  1. Rural Unemployment

Rural unemployment is either seasonal or disguised. Seasonal unemployment in rural area results due to crop rotation.

  1. Urban Unemployment

Urban unemployment is generally educated unemployment. Most of them are either unemployed due to their high qualifications or are under employed as a result of the wrong job profiles they are in. Later on, frustration forces them to shift to a new job, which could make them either under-employed or unemployed.

The planning Commission and National Sample Survey Reports reveal that the number of unemployed is highest in the age group of 19 to 26 years. The total number of unemployed persons in India today is more than 480 lakh.

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Reasons Responsible for Unemployment

Main reasons responsible for unemployment are as under :

  1. Over Population

There is rapid increase in the population while the jobs have remained as they were.

  1. Ruin of Cottage Industries

Our cottage industries are nearly ruined. As a result, the workers hitherto employed in cottage industries are jobless.

  1. Defective Educational System

Our education provides us with bookish knowledge only. Importance is given to literary and theoretical knowledge only. No vocational training is imparted. As a result, when a person completes his studies, he finds himself unemployed. Wherever he goes, he finds the doors closed for him.

  1. Machines

There is an increasing use of machines. One machine can oust  more than a dozen of persons hitherto engaged in some work.

  1. Hatred for Manual Work

Educated youths hate manual work and run after white collar and light jobs.

  1. Illiteracy

Farmers and labourers are illiterate. So, they do not know how to use their leisure in cottage industries and prepare small things and earn extra money.


Some of the measures taken by the State are as follows :

  1. The state is encouraging labour-intensive industry so that more individuals could be employed.
  2. The emphasis is being laid on agriculture, agro based industries and cottage industries besides the small scaled industries.
  3. A number of employment programmes have been initiated, for example, IRDP, JRY, HRY, SEPVP.
  4. Emphasis is laid on vocational education with a view to eliminate the unemployment menace. A young graduate, who has studied Shakespeare, and Thomas Hardy would do no good in an office, which expects him to know Microsoft Windows 98, word processing and expects file handling. Vocational education can make them adept at one particular skill or the other.
  5. The current Five Year plan lays adequate stress on the measures for reducing the already high unemployment levels in the country.


  1. The State must contribute by launching more infrastructure based projects and core sector units.
  2. The wasted crop lands should be cultivated and should be issued only to the landless unemployed people.
  3. Private sector should launch more process industries, which employ large number of skilled and semi skilled people in the rural areas.
  4. The outlook of our young ones is to be changed. They must be taught the importance of manual labour, so that they may give up their love for clerical jobs.
  5. Cottage industries should be encouraged.
  6. Technical and vocational training should be imparted in schools and colleges. It will enable the students to get easily absorbed in factories and industries.
  7. Government should open special work centres to give vocational training and employment to the needy people.
  8. The Government should advance sufficient loans on nominal interest and payable in easy installments to educated young men who desire to start small scale industries.
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