Pre Historic Phases, Stone Age, Primary Culture, Major Sites (Locations) and Importance

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Pre Historic Phases, Stone Age, Primary Culture, Major Sites (Locations) and Importance for Competitive Exams.

Stone Age Primary Culture Major Sites Importance
Lower Palaeolithic Flakes, Chopper Chopping Culture
  • Kashmir, Punjab, Whole India Except Sind and Kerala.
  • Main: Sohan (Punjab), Singrauli Basin (U.P.), Chotanagpur (Jharkhand), Assam, Narmada, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka
  • Pebble and hand axe tools, fossil of home erectus from hathnora (Narmada Basin)
  • Represented by Sohan Culture (now in Pakistan)
Middle Palaeolithic Scraper / Borer Culture Nevasa (Maharashtra), Didwana (Rajasthan), Bhimbetka (M.P.), Bankura and Purulia (West Bengal), Narmada Valley etc.
  • Varieties of Blades, Points, Borer and Scraper made of Flakes.
  • 200 rock shelters and caves are located on Bhimbetka hills having thousands of paintings
  • The age of Neanderthal Man
Upper Palaeolithic Blade and Burin Culture A.P. (Kurnool, Chittor) Karnataka, Central MP, Jharkhand Plateau, U.P., Rajasthan, Gujarat
  • Earlier “Homo Sapiens”
  • Harpoon, blade tools from Renugupta (AP)
  • Bone tools from Kurnool
Mesolithic Age Microliths Culture or Fluting & Geometrical tools Karnataka, Rajasthan (Bagor, Tilwara), Gujarat (Langhnaj), M.P., T.N., W. Bengal (Birbhanpur), U.P. (Sarai Nahar Rai)
  • Microlith (a great technological development, introduction of compound tools)
  • Man still a savage but pottery making (Tilwara) and permanent habitation found, still a hunter, fisher
Neolithic Age Polished Tool Culture Mehargarh, Peninsular India, Kashmir (Burzahom, Gufkral), Assam (Daojili Hading), Garohill Meghalaya, Bihar (Chirand), Kotdiji, Amri etc.
  • Earliest farming community
  • Kinship became the basis of social organisation
  • Pit dwelling houses (Burzahom)
  • Food began to be cooked  by fire
  • Evidence dogs, circular huts made of bamboo, bone tools, hand made pottery etc.
  • Also called “Neolitchi Revolution”
  • Boat making, spinning cotton and wool
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